Tuesday, 12 August 2014

Alcohol Derivatives - Haloalkanes

Haloalkanes are a very useful intermediate compound, often used when converting one useful compound into another. Their own uses are limited, primarily due to the impact they have on the environment. Haloalkanes are generally immiscible (insoluble in water) as they are (technically) non-polar.

Haloalkanes are the products of:
  • reacting a halogen (such as bromine) with hydrocarbons.
  • reacting an alcohol with Lucas Reagent (chloroalkanes produced); remember that tertiary alcohols react very quickly, while primary alcohols may not react at all.
  • reacting an alcohol with PCl3, PCl5 or SOCl2
Haloalkanes can be converted into:
  • alkenes, using NaOH (or KOH) dissolved in alcohol (elimination reaction)
  • alcohols, using aqueous NaOH (or KOH) (substitution reaction)
  • amines, using excess NH3 (substitution reaction); if you use do not use enough NH3, it will make an amino salt instead, such as ethyl ammonium chloride

For more information about haloalkanes, click HERE (ChemGuide)

No comments:

Post a Comment